In 2015, the world witnessed a significant shift towards sustainable development with the adoption of three international agreements that set new standards for environmental protection, economic growth, and social development. These agreements were reached at different forums and conferences convened to address various aspects of sustainability and the need for global cooperation to achieve a shared vision of a sustainable future. Here are the three international agreements about sustainability adopted in 2015:
1. United Nations 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development
The United Nations adopted the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development in September 2015 during the United Nations Sustainable Development Summit. The Agenda provides a comprehensive blueprint for global sustainability, with 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and 169 associated targets to be achieved by 2030. The SDGs cover a broad range of issues, including poverty, hunger, health, education, gender equality, clean water and sanitation, renewable energy, climate change, biodiversity, and peace and justice. The Agenda recognizes that sustainable development requires a holistic approach that balances economic, social, and environmental concerns, and that achieving the SDGs will require the participation and cooperation of all countries, stakeholders, and sectors of society.
2. Paris Agreement on Climate Change
The Paris Agreement on Climate Change was adopted in December 2015 during the 21st Conference of the Parties (COP21) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The Agreement aims to limit global warming to well below 2°C above pre-industrial levels, with a goal of pursuing efforts to limit the temperature increase to 1.5°C. The Agreement requires all countries to submit nationally determined contributions (NDCs) outlining their efforts to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions and adapt to the impacts of climate change, and to report on their progress every five years. The Agreement also establishes a financial mechanism to support developing countries in their climate action and adaptation efforts.
3. Addis Ababa Action Agenda on Financing for Development
The Addis Ababa Action Agenda on Financing for Development was adopted in July 2015 during the Third International Conference on Financing for Development. The Agenda recognizes that financing is critical to achieving sustainable development and outlines a framework for mobilizing domestic and international resources, reducing illicit financial flows, and fostering private sector investment. The Agenda also emphasizes the importance of addressing systemic issues such as debt sustainability, trade, technology transfer, and capacity-building, and of ensuring that development is inclusive and sustainable.
In conclusion, these three international agreements about sustainability adopted in 2015 represent a significant milestone in the global effort to achieve sustainable development. By setting ambitious goals and outlining a comprehensive framework for action, these agreements provide a roadmap for governments, businesses, civil society, and individuals to work together towards a common vision of a sustainable future for all. As we move towards the end of the decade, it is vital to continue to build on the momentum generated by these agreements and accelerate our efforts to turn their vision into a reality.